With our highly connected and interdependent world, the growing threat of infectious diseases and public health crisis has shed light on the requirement for global efforts to manage and combat highly pathogenic infectious diseases and other public health crisis on an unprecedented level. Such disease threats transcend borders. Reducing global threats posed by infectious disease outbreaks – whether naturally caused or resulting from a deliberate or accidental release – requires efforts that cross the disaster management pillars: mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.
This book addresses the issues of global health security along 4 themes: Emerging Threats; Mitigation, Preparedness, Response and Recovery; Exploring the Technology Landscape for Solutions; Leadership and Partnership. The authors of this volume highlight many of the challenges that confront our global security environment today. These range from politically induced disasters, to food insecurity, to zoonosis and terrorism. More optimistically, the authors also present some advances in technology that can help us combat these threats.
This book provides an introduction to the computational and complex systems modeling of the global spreading of infectious diseases. The first part of the book guides the reader through the sophisticated complex systems modeling techniques with a non-technical and visual approach, explaining and illustrating the construction of the modern framework used to project the spread of pandemics and epidemics. Models can be used to transform date to knowledge that is intuitively communicated by powerful infographics and for this reason, the second part of the book focuses on a set of charts that illustrate possible scenarios of future pandemics. The visual atlas contained allows the reader to identify commonalities and patterns in emerging health treats, as well as explore the wide range of models and data that can be used by policy makers to anticipate trends, evaluate risks and eventually manage future events. The book puts the reader in the position to explore different pandemic scenarios and to understand the potential impact of available containment and preventive strategies; it emphasizes the importance of a global perspective in the assessment of emerging health threats and captures the possible evolution of the next pandemic, while at the same time providing the intelligence needed to fight it.
Ever since the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic, scientists have dreamed of preventing catastrophic outbreaks of infectious disease. Yet, despite a century of medical progress, viral and bacterial disasters continue to take us by surprise, inciting panic and dominating news cycles. From pneumonic plague in LA and 'parrot fever' in Argentina to the more recent AIDS, SARS and Ebola epidemics, the last 100 years have been marked by a succession of unanticipated outbreaks and scares. Like man-eating sharks, predatory pathogens are always present in nature, waiting to strike; when one is seemingly vanquished, others appear in its place. This book exposes the limits of science against nature, and how these crises are shaped by humans as much as microbes.
Pandemics are potentially very destructive phenomena, and for that reason, they both fascinate and frighten us. Thanks to vaccines, more reliable provision of medical services, more effective means of communication, and a more educated public, some argue we will not see a new plague - or even Spanish flu - in our time. Today we face new challenges, however, which can both enable diseases to reach pandemic scales and affect our ability to enact an appropriate response. Those include fragmentation of media, tribalization of 'knowledge regimes', the increasingly troubled status of scientific and political expertise, growing cross-continental mobility, as well as the globalization and commercialization fo pandemic response systems. These distinctive complexities make the need to stage public action in response to pandemics and other public health crises a crucial problem on which thousands of human lives hinge. This volume consists of a handful of social science and humanities studies or precisely such complexities, and thus offers a much-need supplement to existing research on pandemics and pandemic response.
This handbook offers public health workers of all kinds an authoritative and up-to-date guide to current protocols surrounding the identification and control of infectious diseases. It is a practical tool that can be relied upon to explain topics ranging from the basic principles of communicable disease control to recent changes and innovations in health protection practice. Major syndromes and individual infections are insightfully addressed, while the authors also outline the WHO's international health regulations and the organizational arrangements in place in all EU nations.
Confronted with pandemics, bioterrorism, and emerging infectious diseases, governments are transforming their security policies to include the proactive development, acquisition, stockpiling, and mass distribution of new pharmaceutical defenses. What happens - politically, economically, and socially - when governments try to protect their populations with pharmaceuticals ? The author explores this complex question in this book about the world's most prominent medical countermeasure, Tamiflu. Taken by millions of people around the planet in the fight against pandemic flu, Tamiflu has provoked suspicions about undue commercial influence in government decision-making about stockpiles. It even found itself at the center of a prolonged political battle over who should have access to the data about the safety and effectiveness of medicines. The book shows that the story of Tamiflu harbors deeper lessons about the vexing political, economic, legal, social, and regulatory tensions that emerge as twenty-first century security policy takes a pharmaceutical turn. At the heart of this issue, the author argues, lies something deeper : the rise of a new molecular vision of life that is reshaping the world we live in.
This book provides all-encompassing coverage that introduces key concepts and traces the history of pandemics, enabling readers to grasp the complexity of the global problem and the difficulties of executing effective solutions. Written in an easy-to-understand manner, it provides a 'go-to' resource that systematically addresses dozens of diseases of the past as well as re-emergent or newly emerging pathogens that have the potential of becoming pandemics.
New pandemics hop around the globe every year. In 2009-2010, it was H1N1 that spread uncontrollably, infecting over 60 million people around the world. In 2014, Ebola virus claimed 11,325 lives with just 28,652 cases - a stunning 40% mortality rate. So, what will happen when a pathogen as easily transmitted as H1N1 and as deadly as Ebola enters a population somewhere - anywhere - in the world ? This book provides all the information needed for the day when the horrible eventuality becomes a reality. It provides readers with a life-saving plan that guides them step by step to a state of medical self-reliance. It covers every important issue including stocking food, storing water, developing contingency plans, learning first aid and nursing skills, as well as establishing quarantines and sick rooms. With checklists, tips, and plans, this book outlines the necessary supplies and skills one will need to stay healthy when doctors, hospitals, and the world's medical infrastructure become overwhelmed and unavailable during a pandemic outbreak.
Although nothing can be done to prevent pandemics, their impact can be significantly mitigated. This book explains how. Part I provides a detailed overview of the challenges that pandemic threats can present. It uses historical examples to illustrate how pandemics can have devastating effects not only on the global population but also on critical infrastructure, the global economy, and society. Part II considers the actions that can be taken at global, national, corporate and individual levels to mitigate the risk and limit the damage of pandemic incidents. It provides guidance on creating and validating a pandemic plan and explains how it integrates with a business continuity plan. Comprehensive studies are provided throughout.
Influenza was the great killer of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and the so-called 'Russian flu' killed around 1 million people across Europe in 1889-93 - including the second-in-line to the British throne, the Duke of Clarence. The Spanish flu of 1918, meanwhile, would kill 50 million people - nearly 3% of the world's population. In this book, the author outlines the history of influenza in the period, and describes how the fear of disease permeated Victorian culture. These fears were amplified by the invention of the telegraph and the ability of the new mass-market press to whip up public hysteria. The flu was therefore a barometer of wider fin de siècle social and cultural anxieties - playing on fears engendered by economic decline, technology, urbanization, and degeneration. This book is a vital new contribution towards our understanding of European history and the history of the media.
The author offers here an essential guide to one of the truly life-or-death issues of our age. In concise, question-and-answer format, he explains the causes of pandemics, how they can be counteracted with vaccines and drugs, and how we can better prepare for them in the future. The author notes that the term 'pandemic' refers not to a disease's severity but to its ability to spread rapidly over a wide geographical area. Extremely lethal pathogens are usually quickly identified and confined. Nevertheless, the rise of high-speed transportation networks and the globalization of trade and travel have radically accelerated the spread of diseases. A traveler from Africa arrived in New York in 1999 carrying the West Nile virus; one mosquito bite later, it was loose in the ecosystem. The author explains how the main threat of a pandemic comes from respiratory viruses, such as influenza and SARS, which disseminate with incredible speed through air travel. The climate disruptions of global warming, rising population density, and growing antibiotic resistance all complicate efforts to control pandemics. But the author stresses that pandemics can be fought effectively. Often simple health practices, especially in hospitals, can help enormously. And research into the animal reservoirs of pathogens, from SARS in bats to HIV in chimpanzees, show promise for our prevention efforts.
This handbook offers the disaster medicine professional community the information and tools to better prepare, individually and collaboratively, to mitigate mortality and morbidity when catastrophe occurs. It captures the lectures and teachings of a NATO Advanced Study Institute held in late 2011 : 'Applying lessons learned and sharing best practices in addressing pandemics and catastrophic health events'. The results of this event are presented in three sections : the context of catastrophic health planning; principles of response to catastrophes with mass casualties; and communication and information sharing. The handbook presents rigorous, standardized cross-disciplinary training, such as medical response to major incidents; the need to guide medical and humanitarian efforts by ethical principles; the importance of risk communication and trustworthy information; treatment guidelines along with medical and surgical practices for amputation, burns, and blast injuries; triage guidelines and treatment algorithms; principles of mass-casualty planning; and the need to identify and correctly position - in advance - the networks and collaborative structures that must work together and share capabilities.
At the height of World War I, history's most lethal influenza virus erupted in an army camp in Kansas, moved east with American troops, then exploded, killing as many as 100 million people worldwide. It killed more people in twenty-four months than AIDS killed in twenty-four years, more in a year than the Black Death killed in a century. But this was not the Middle Ages, and 1918 marked the first collision of science and epidemic disease. This book examines the causes of the pandemic, its devastating impact on early twentieth-century society, the researchers who risked their lives to confront the disease, and the lasting implications of the crisis and the scientific discoveries that resulted.