The article presents the conceptual features of energy security management under a radically changed context, increasing crisis phenomena, and threats of various natures. The authors substantiate the claim that energy security is a complex category, which expresses the ability of the fuel and energy complex of the region to supply the required amount and range of energy resources to the domestic market at stable and reasonable prices; to promptly mitigate unexpected fluctuations in demand for fuel and energy resources; and to ensure uninterrupted energy supply and energy carrier parameters in real time.
The others deal with the technological possibilities of an energy transition to green energy and ask how it is practically and technologically possible to ensure energy security with green energy. Alternative technologies for energy production may play an important role in the energy transition. Without a transition to green energy, energy prices would not have had to rise so much, and energy security could have been better ensured by nuclear power plants. One deals with the economic and political aspects of the energy transition and energy security.
We have been observing large fluctuations and price increases in electricity markets in recent years. The COVID-19 pandemic, rising energy costs, political instability and increasing demand for electricity have been the factors intensifying the problems. This causes uncertainty related to maintaining energy security. Energy security is an element of the national security system.
The Russian aggression against Ukraine brought energy security to the top of the European policy agenda. Existing literature suggests that the prioritization of energy security would come at the expense of climate policy. We argue that the EU’s response to the Russian invasion of Ukraine may constitute a departure from this pattern. Our assessment shows a higher level of coherence of objectives and instruments between energy security and climate objectives than the EU’s energy policy responses to previous crises with Russia, notably the gas supply crisis of 2009 and the annexation of Crimea in 2014. While some uncertainty about final outcomes remains, we argue that change in several contextual conditions helps explain coherent policy outputs and make coherent outcomes more likely on the occasion of the present crisis.